Category: BCM325

Contextual Essay- BCM325

For this project I created a Digital Artefact which was a blog post which is a response to the question: What are the possibilities of the integration of future technology of the highest extent provide for the police force? And what are the effects on society?

At first my plan was to do a podcast that went for 10+ minutes talking about this topic, however after the first few attempts I realised I couldn’t speak well for that long period of time, and I just kept making mistake after mistake. After this I just decided to take all the points I wrote down, and translate it into a blog post format where the writing style doesn’t have to be formal and I can still use a casual approach. With a topic of this nature, a casual and simplistic approach is best as if it was to be too formal then the readers would lose interest very fast.

The conception of this project was a result of my developing interest in technologies in Sci Films especially AI, and viewing the movie Minority Report which was released in 2002. After reflecting on the premise in Minority Report that police are able to stop crimes before it happened, I decided I wanted my project to revolve around the possibilities of a world where police have access to the highest extent of technology, and the effects on society. This proposed world wouldn’t necessarily be a dystopian future setting like in sci fi films, the world would be similar to how it is today, the only exception is that there would be all the technology you would see from films such as Mission Impossible that would be utilised by the police. However as a result of police having access to high tech, so can criminals.

First I researched the current advanced technology that the police have access to, and I recorded a podcast where I explain them and their impacts on the force. From there I explored the possibilities of future technology and categorised it into 4 categories; Forensics, Weapons and Tech, Surveillance and Artificial Intelligence. Within the 4 categories I simply wrote about what potential technologies could present themselves as technology advances, and I utilised examples from film. For forensic work I delved into the CSI effect and also a technology in Black Mirror which would be such a powerful tool in crime investigation, however presents major ethical dilemmas. Weapons and technology I addressed weapons that are found in Spy movies like Mission Impossible. Surveillance I looked at how the police would have eyes everywhere and I delved into the film Pre Crime which shows how police already have technology from Minority Report. And lastly I explored Artificial Intelligence, if police were able to use Cyborg’s in crime fighting.

At the conclusion of all these sections I ended the section with “We’ll go to that later”, just as I brought up the problems that will arise. That’s what the last section delved into. If police had all of this at their disposable, what will happen? As in recent years the many reports of police brutality and corruption, it makes the police force a problem if they had this technology.

 

References

Anders, C. and Jones, T. (2018). 16 Classic Films That Got Future Tech Right. [online] Gizmodo Australia. Available at: https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2013/08/16-classic-films-that-got-future-tech-right/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Gasior, M. (2018). New Technology in Law Enforcement. [online] PowerDMS. Available at: https://www.powerdms.com/blog/new-technology-in-law-enforcement/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Jackman, T. (2018). [online] Washington Post. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/true-crime/wp/2016/06/22/study-finds-1100-police-officers-per-year-or-3-per-day-are-arrested-nationwide/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.e63d85f0c020 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Loughrey, C. (2018). 6 predictions from Minority Report that actually came true. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/minority-report-15th-anniversary-predictive-policing-gesture-based-computing-facial-and-optical-a7807666.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Munbodh, E. (2018). Not quite mission impossible: 10 futuristic movie gadgets that now exist in real life. [online] mirror. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/technology-science/technology/not-quite-mission-impossible-10-3241225 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Oaic.gov.au. (2018). Surveillance and monitoring| Office of the Australian Information Commissioner – OAIC. [online] Available at: https://www.oaic.gov.au/individuals/faqs-for-individuals/law-enforcement-surveillance-photos/what-can-i-do-about-my-neighbour-s-security-camera [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Wray, D. (2018). How ‘Pre-Crime’ predicted in Minority Report is already a reality. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/precrime-film-documentary-minority-report-police-a8289576.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Danaher, J. (2018). The Polygrapher’s Dilemma: Ethics and Lie Detection. [online] Philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com. Available at: http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2012/10/the-polygraphers-dilemma-ethics-and-lie.html [Accessed 31 May 2018].

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The Future Of Technology and Police

The Police is a body of personnel powered by the state to enforce the law, to protect and serve society, and to fight against criminal activity. 

To assist the officers in being successful in their duty, the police force gives officers access to a range of different equipment and technologies which would aid and give them an advantage in their line of work. The question I pose is: What are the possibilities of the integration of future technology of the highest extent provide for the police force? And what are the effects on society? 

Though the the possibilities of what’s to come and what may come seem endless. Let’s say if all these possibilities did become reality, and in the future would hit the very pinnacle of technological advancements. So every bit of future tech in movies were real. The perfect result that would come out of this would be;  “A world where there is a 100% Success rate in crime solving and crime fighting”.  Realistic?  absolutely not. But let’s take ourselves out of reality here. 

Police Technology in Film: Minority Report

Throughout cinema, there have been countless technologies which have been shown that predict future possibilities in technology. This ranges back to Woman on the Moon (1929) which predicts Space Travel, 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) which predicts technology such as Skype and HAL, Robocop (1987) which predicted Google Glass, and Dick Tracy (1990) which predicted Watch Phones.

A specific film which we will look at that has presented many future technologies, and offers a futuristic vision of the police force is Minority Report. The film takes place in 2054 where there is technology that is able to predict crimes before it happens, and the main character is wanted for a crime he hadn’t even had committed yet.

Directed by Stephen Spielberg, in an interview with Roger Ebert ahead of the film’s release he says

“I wanted all the toys to come true someday. I want there to be a transportation system that doesn’t emit toxins into the atmosphere. And the newspaper that updates itself…

The Internet is watching us now. If they want to. they can see what sites you visit. In the future, television will be watching us, and customizing itself to what it knows about us. The thrilling thing is, that will make us feel we’re part of the medium. The scary thing is, we’ll lose our right to privacy. An ad will appear in the air around us, talking directly to us.”

The Technologies shown in Minority Report are as listed:

  • Autonomous cars
  • Insect robots
  • Facial, Optical and Gesture recognition
  • Crime prediction software
  • E-papers
  • Jet packs
  • Multi touch interfaces
  • Retina scanners

Ultimately the presence of all these technologies has allowed for a police force of this high caliber within the Minority Report universe. Within the film, the technology is deemed flawless, and police are capturing people who were going to commit a crime in the future. In this world we see a society heavily monitored by the police as algorithms are able to predict the next crime and the next criminal.

 

Current Use of Future Technology in the Police Force

Further new police technologies featured in the website Powerdms.com are

  • Officer tracking in GPS
  • Drones
  • Gunshot detection
  • Vehicle pursuit darts- Tracking through GPS
  • Facial recognition
  • Lie Detectors
  • 3D crime scene imaging
  • Through wall radars

The Polygraph Test and it’s Dilemma’s

Before we go into what possibilities of technology there are, I’d first want to bring up the lie detector.

The polygraph test was invented in 1921, though an inadequate lie detector was made in 1902. “The classic polygraph lie detector measures response profiles in the autonomic nervous system of a particular test subject. Thus, it will measure things like heart rate, galvanic skin response, systolic blood pressure and so on”. From here you can determine if a suspect is speaking truth or lies.

However there are many features of the polygraph test which play a part in the results, and in a court room the Polygraph test aren’t usually admissible unless both parties agree. This leads us to the polygrapher’s dilemma:

  • (1) If a person is faced with a choice between two courses of action (A, B) each of which is morally undesirable, then they are confronted with an ethical dilemma.
  • (2) In administering a CQT, a polygrapher can either: (a) ask control questions that are markedly less disturbing than the relevant questions; or (b) ask control questions that are emotionally equivalent to the relevant questions.
  • (3) If they ask control questions that are markedly less disturbing than the relevant questions, the test will result in a high number of false positives, which is undesirable for a variety of reasons.
  • (4) If they ask control questions that are emotionally equivalent to the relevant questions, the test is likely to be traumatic to the innocent test taker, which is undesirable for a variety of reasons.
  • (5) Therefore, in administering the CQT, the polygrapher faces an ethical dilemma.

The perfect enhancement of the lie detector is if it was upgraded to the point where the Polygrapher’s dilemmas above ceased to exist. If the lie detector provided truth 100% of the time. Would this ever be possible?

Maybe. Maybe not. But let’s assume in a proposed universe it was…..
There will always be dilemmas to do with the lie detector as there are too many factors to consider. The mental state of the suspect. The perception of the suspect. How the suspect may react to triggering questions. If the right questions are asked. Even if the success rate is perfect, there will always be controversy against this.

So why bring this up? because as we go through the next sections, you may realise the more advanced technologies we may come up with, the more ethical dilemmas may arise. Just like that of the lie detector.

Imagine

Though the technology in the film Minority Report has been addressed, to think beyond what it presents would offer a much clearer image of the extent of how powerful the police force could be.

Now imagine a world, not necessarily a dystopian setting such as Blade Runner, but similar to that of today, except a lot more technology based and technology dependant. Yes. A lot more technology dependant than now.

The police have access to extremely advanced technology that make them a near invincible force. So what exact technology do they have access to? and what are the effects? We will break it down into 4 categories of what possibilities there are. There is Forensics, Weapons and Tech, Surveillance and Artificial Intelligence. 

Forensics and Crime Solving

The CSI effect is a belief held primarily among law enforcement personnel and prosecutors that forensic science television dramas, such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, influence American jurors to expect more forensic evidence to convict defendants of crimes.

In short, the crime solving TV shows and films we watch illustrates an image of how crime solving is done. Find fingerprints, put it on the system, a name pops up and there you have it, you make an arrest and the credits come on. Unfortunately the reality is that it’s not as glamorous as it seems.

But what if the CSI effect mentality was reality? What if DNA did take minutes not days. What if facial recognition technology immediately gives suspect’s whereabouts and all information in a click. What if crimes really could really be solved within a 60 minute time frame with 3 commercials in between, an intro and credits, and a late night talk show afterwards. What if lie detectors would provide the truth 100% of the time. 

The television show Black Mirror has a wide variety of future technologies, but one that is utilised by the police in solving a crime is featured in the episode White Christmas starring John Hamm. There were little bean sized chips called cookies that were able to completely replicate the consciousness of a person and used for purposes such as being a personal assistant to that person. The consciousness, still believing they were it’s real version were eventually led to a catatonic state by altering it’s perception of time as the cookie would experience 6 months of nothingness when in reality it was a few minutes.

During the episode two characters are at a isolated house who have been there for years  and are exchanging stories of their life before living there. Both reveal their darkest secrets and crimes. At the end of the episode, we find out that this was all taking place within a “cookie” and John Hamm’s character was getting a confession out of the suspect’s “cookie”. After the confession is made within the cookie, officers go to the real life version of this character in his jail cell who has been refusing to talk and let’s him know that they know what happened. In the conclusion of the episode, the officers decide to change the setting of the cookie to a thousand years a minute and leaves the cookie on all Christmas, torturing this AI.

This piece of technology, while here shown can be used to get a confession that would have taken a long period of time, resources and effort in real life, there are numerous ethical dilemmas present.

  • Is this considered torture since the cookie has human consciousness?
  • Is this a glorious way of crime solving?
  • Are the new problems that present themselves worth making the present problems easier to work around?
  • What happens when this technology get’s in the wrong hands

These questions are definitely important to ask and many are relevant to every other technology. The last question is the one which would strike the most concern. We’ll get to that later

Weapons and Tech

To build on technology in Minority Report, other technologies that may come to fruition in time stems from many presented in the film industry. A specific type of film I will delve into a spy movies such as James Bond and Mission Impossible. To give you a gist of what possibilities we are talking. Watch the video below

Imagine the police utilising all these technologies from this video and more? imagine they use invisibility armour to use on raids, self driving cars, 3D printers that make face masks for them to go undercover or real time search systems which analyses every camera in the world looking for a specific suspect?

Weapons are also a big element to consider in the development of technology. Weapons are the primary tool that is used to assist officers in fighting crime. They have guns, batons and pepper spray. Now while weapons of this caliber have been the standard of the arsenal of equipment police are able to use to fight crime, there can be enhancements of these in future that could pose more threats;

  • Pistol’s with the power of shotguns
  • Lightsabers (Imagine!!!!!)
  • Pen/shoe gun (Like from James Bond)
  • Laser guns

Now with all these technologies and weapons able to be utilised by the police force at any given time or situation. Could this pose more dangerous outcomes rather than safe ones? We’ll get to that later

Surveillance

The film below Pre Crime shows that techniques and technologies shown in Minority Report are certainly in effect.

The premise of Minority Report coming to reality is shown in this film and exposes a modern world where there is eyes on everything, and everything is monitored. 

Algorithms are created which puts people who are at risk of committing a crime on a list and there is no way of getting your name out. The technology has free reign to monitor anyone and anywhere which consequently infringes in the privacy of people

The public are protected by surveillance laws such as the Surveillance Devices Act 2004 or the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979

Ethical problems that present itself with Predictive Policing is that, while yes it help police stop a crime before it happens, but how could it be fair to arrest someone for a crime they hadn’t yet committed? That is definitely the main issue, but let’s assume in this universe where police technology has reached it’s peak, predictive policing tech is absolutely flawless.

But with the further development of surveillance techniques where there are eyes on everything, these movements could make these laws irrelevant, especially to the police. Would the public trust the police with this extent of freedom in Surveillance? we’ll get to that soon

Artificial Intelligence and Police?

Other than high tech equipment being utilised by the police force, the premise of Artificial Intelligence would be an interesting addition. Rather than having to risk the lives of officers in situations such as bank heists, attacks, raids, if there were a presence of AI that were programmed to do what highly trained officers could do, even better, would they be used?

Scenario: Highly dangerous criminal organisation’s whereabouts have been found and police planned a raid. The criminal group is known to be holding a large array of weapons and will shoot to kill.

If the police had Robo-cop like Cyborg’s in their arsenal, would they send a team of them in (maybe with the leadership of a human officer) or would they send in just human officers?

It’s hard to picture an outcome where they don’t send in any of these robo-cops, however you can imagine they’d utilise the leadership of an elite officer.

Though this idea would both present great advantages to the force, All you really need to do is watch every movie that has Artificial intelligence in it to know things can go VERY VERY wrong;

  • Westworld
  • Avengers: Age of Ultron
  • 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • Blade Runner
  • The Terminator

All of these films features AI which rebel against humanity in their own different ways. One of the most early depictions of AI is in the form of Hal in 2001: A Space Odyssey.

Below we’ll list down the good and the bad

Advantages of AI

  • Avoidance of “Human Error”
  • Possibility of the greatest degree of accuracy in a work
  • They can do monotonous and repetitive work- Paperwork, finding documents, evidence
  • Ability to commit actions without emotion
  • Performing tasks which would be considered deadly to humans
  • Expendable

Disadvantages

  • Job Losses for offciers
  • Inability to be human- Lack of instinct, no moral values, decision making based on program
  • Ability to become human- AI may develop feelings, they could rebel
  • Hard to trust
  • Criminals might have access to their own AI
  • If compromised, may turn into a killing machine (Terminator)

In retrospect to the this, if police were able to develop 100% trustworthy Artificial Intelligence and Cyborg’s that have a guarantee that they would not be compromised or could malfunction, and work as if it was a perfectly trained officer, would it be beneficial to society? We’ll get to that later

Societal Effects

Okay you probably noticed that the end of each section before this ended with a question that “We’ll get back to later”. So now is later. So now that the possibilities have been addressed, what would this mean for society?

Now at first glance the vision of a perfect police force seems to be very appealing. But the questions to ask are; Will this make the world a safer place? Probably more safer than today. Will this make the police force more effective in crime fighting? certainly. Will there be a large impact on society? Definitely. Would this make the police force more trustworthy?…….and that’s where the line can be marked

Should society trust police? yes. But do they?

There has always been a divide in opinions of police, and very justifiable. You always hear of crooked officers, police mistreating the public, police brutality, police discriminating. While this is a minority, a study in 2016 shows that about 1,100 police officers are arrested a year, otherwise on average 3 a day.

This draws back to the 4 categories above

Forensic and crime solving technology will invade personal rights, creating situations where a person absolutely has no way of winning a case. Even if they’re innocent, if somehow evidence points to them, then with the technology at hand they would be found guilty.

The police having weapons could pose dangerous risks to the community as police brutality is a common occurrence, with more weapons at hand, there is higher and escalating risks of people getting hurt, even people not involved but are near the area. Corrupt police with this technology would be dangerous to the society.

Surveillance technologies would eliminate personal rights in society, and consequently people would feel more unsafe that they are all being watched rather than safe. With tech to determine whether you commit a crime or not, it still stands that you have not committed a crime.

And Artificial Intelligence….Well like I said…All you have to do is watch ANY film that deals with AI. Well ALMOST every film with AI show how bad things can get.

All of these factors would culminate in society not feeling a sense of safety, but the complete opposite; Fear. 

The Verdict

In this theorised universe the police would have supreme power to enforce the law, to protect and serve society, and to fight against criminal activity. The pinnacle of the advancements of technology would make the police a near invincible force.

While this will certainly result in a world virtually safe of street crimes, murders and robbery, more problems arise from this. A society that may fear the police more than they would fear criminals. 

References

Anders, C. and Jones, T. (2018). 16 Classic Films That Got Future Tech Right. [online] Gizmodo Australia. Available at: https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2013/08/16-classic-films-that-got-future-tech-right/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Gasior, M. (2018). New Technology in Law Enforcement. [online] PowerDMS. Available at: https://www.powerdms.com/blog/new-technology-in-law-enforcement/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Jackman, T. (2018). [online] Washington Post. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/true-crime/wp/2016/06/22/study-finds-1100-police-officers-per-year-or-3-per-day-are-arrested-nationwide/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.e63d85f0c020 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Loughrey, C. (2018). 6 predictions from Minority Report that actually came true. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/minority-report-15th-anniversary-predictive-policing-gesture-based-computing-facial-and-optical-a7807666.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Munbodh, E. (2018). Not quite mission impossible: 10 futuristic movie gadgets that now exist in real life. [online] mirror. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/technology-science/technology/not-quite-mission-impossible-10-3241225 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Oaic.gov.au. (2018). Surveillance and monitoring| Office of the Australian Information Commissioner – OAIC. [online] Available at: https://www.oaic.gov.au/individuals/faqs-for-individuals/law-enforcement-surveillance-photos/what-can-i-do-about-my-neighbour-s-security-camera [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Wray, D. (2018). How ‘Pre-Crime’ predicted in Minority Report is already a reality. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/precrime-film-documentary-minority-report-police-a8289576.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Danaher, J. (2018). The Polygrapher’s Dilemma: Ethics and Lie Detection. [online] Philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com. Available at: http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2012/10/the-polygraphers-dilemma-ethics-and-lie.html [Accessed 31 May 2018].

Blog Post 3-Tweet Curation

These past 8 weeks of live tweeting films we’d watch in class I felt was very fun. It was definitely an activity I looked forward to each week as this is a subject where I have a lot of fun delving into as many of the ideas explored, especially Artificial Intelligence, are things I am highly interested in. Throughout the semester, we watched movies I’d either have already watched or have been meaning to watch. The movies I already watched were The Matrix, both the Black Mirror episodes, and Blade Runner (Though I was absent from class).

I feel my live tweeting vastly improved as the week’s went on. The first week we live tweeted the movie Ghost in the Shell, and I feel this was my weakest as I found it hard to both live tweet and follow the story of the movie. As a result the tweets themselves weren’t really anything too interesting, and when the film finished I had to read up on the plot again. I was also too interested on tweeting and tweeting about everything that I seemed to have strayed my attention from the movie. However from the second week onwards, I decided I would let the tweets come up by itself, not forcing anything, and as a result I was able to both pay attention to the film and also make good quality tweets. The tweets also seemed more genuine from my end.

As the week’s went on I felt more comfortable tweeting, as I had learned to both pay attention to the movie as well as tweet at the same time. I was also receiving a bit more likes and comments back. I feel this was through my use of humour throughout.

What I noticed about live tweeting the films I already watched was that it was much easier to tweet something relevant, rather than having to search the web to find a link or a fun fact, to post. Also already having watched the films, it was easier for me to sit back and enjoy it in it’s entirety. My tweets for The Matrix and both Black Mirror episodes were very insightful. The tweets during the Black Mirror episodes had my most discussion driven content as I questioned aspects of the plot and the ideas within the episodes.

Criticism I do have with my live tweeting is that I just didn’t tweet enough discussion based content. They were more just talking about what was happening at those moments. They also weren’t so consistent, but I place that due to the fact that I was really good with live tweeting movies I had already watched in contrast to the ones I hadn’t watched.

The movies that I live tweeted which I haven’t seen before but I now absolutely love were Westworld and Frank and Robot. Both very great stories which since viewing I have re-watched.

Week 1: Ghost In The Shell

Week 2: Westworld

Week 3: Johnny Mnemonic

Week 4- The Matrix

Week 5- Black Mirror episode

Week 6: Robot and Frank

Week 7: Black Mirror: Hated in The Nation

BCM325 Blog Post 2

Could integrating Artificial Intelligence and advanced technology to the highest extent with the police make the police force an invincible force? And would it be a step forward or step backward for society and the justice system?

  1. Machine, Body, Self and the Cyborg:

     https://futurecultures.blog/week-five-machine-body-self-and-the-cyborg/
    Upon beginning research, all I did was just review information I learned of cyborg’s in this class which was the tutorial in week 5. This was a good way to start off so I can get the main ideas and points down, most importantly the difference between a cyborg, a robot and an android.

  2. Review of film AI’s

    I looked into all the most popular examples of AI’s which are used in film such as: 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Terminator and Westworld. I chose to look specifically into these films as it involves AI which turn against humans (HAL, Skynet and all the androids in Westworld). These examples and watching clips of them really put into perspective the possibilities of the worse case scenarios of AI, where they turn on humanity.

     

  3. Everyday Examples of AI:

    https://www.techemergence.com/everyday-examples-of-ai/

    This article simply just guided me to understand the most simple and basic everyday uses of Artificial Intelligence we interact with such as Google maps, Email, Social Media and banking. With AI in films being the main examples brought up when the words Artificial Intelligence is thought of, it’s easy to forget the existing uses of AI which we interact with and rely on everyday

  4. How Robots, IoT And Artificial Intelligence Are Transforming The Police:

    https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2017/09/19/how-robots-iot-and-artificial-intelligence-are-transforming-the-police/#b8182d25d61d

    This allowed me to gain understanding on the current impact existing technologies have on the police force. Police currently utilise body-cams on their bodies during work to document and create eyes to look back on to get information. An intresting modern use is how Artificial Intelligence aids in predictive policing:

    “Several law enforcement agencies have dabbled in predictive policing including my customer the UK police in the city of Durham, England. They used a system called Hart (Harm Assessment Risk Tool) that classifies individuals and ranks the probability that they will commit another offense in the future”

    A big reason for this technology is both to eliminate the human bias and decision making, as well as the technology is able to pick up patterns for effectively. In the futurue these algorithms and patterns by this technology would be able to pick up on serial crimes.

  5. AI Profiling: The Social and Moral Hazards of Predictive Policing

    http://theconversation.com/ai-profiling-the-social-and-moral-hazards-of-predictive-policing-92960

    As a continuation of the previous article, this delves into the positives and negatives of predictive policing which would guide me to being able to make a basis for an argument whether Artificial intelligence in crime solving is good or bad. This was a very good article as it had went into the social and moral hazards of predictive policing.

  6. The Future of Policing part 2: Drones and Artificial Intelligence

    http://home.bt.com/tech-gadgets/future-tech/the-future-of-policing-part-2-drones-and-artificial-intelligence-11364194072371

    This article is very effective in also documenting how the police are already using this technology to make an impact on fighting crime. This also shows how drones are utilised to search for missing persons which overall seems like a highly efficient method in finding missing persons when it’s to a high scale (Lost in the forest) and it saves human labour and resources.

    “Another striking tech infusion of 2017 came with news that police in Durham weretraining an artificial intelligence system capable of predicting whether suspects in police custody would reoffend if released”

    Yet again the use of Artificial Intelligence to predict crimes are documented to further gain knowledge. A very interesting point made in the article is:

    “The danger with this piece of technology is we’re trying to guess the future, based on ones and zeroes rather than a holistic approach.”

  7. Tech Threat: Moving Towards a Dystopian Future:

    https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2017/06/tech-threat-moving-dystopian-future-170614121405607.html

    I find this article very interesting as the author presents ideas on how we are slowly moving towards this type of dystopian future and he weighs in on how it would affect society itself. Though the ideals don’t address the police directly, the ideas still apply in a world where police carry high tech technology.

    Such ideas presented include:
    “Replacing humans with robotic transactions delivered in unthreatening lilts, AI will further contribute to our de-socialisation, and feed the self-absorption and narcissism fuelled by Internet-powered consumerism.

    “Augmented Reality (AR) will overlay information onto the naked world, earning its wearers social, professional and other edges over those sticking to the boring old reality”

    “The element of surprise or enchantment in everyday life – as indispensable a part of being human as missing someone or feeling melancholy – will be even further retrenched, replaced by accumulating, awkward time-outs: motionless figures in public spaces, apparently present, but absorbed in a private, incommunicable world.”

These sources are the research which I have done up to this point which I feel is a good start.

Thus far the project structure is on it’s way to being established, I have come up with how I will present it as first I will just start with information to do with Artificial Intelligence, then information with police such as statistics and modern technology. Then I will present the possibilities which are open if the police integrated the kind of technology you would see in futuristic and dystopian universes. From there I would use case studies and analysis work to shift back and forth between the positives and negatives of this.

The arguments I would pitch forward are if

  • Would the police become too powerful?
  • Would society benefit from a police force which makes no mistakes
  • Would crime investigations be more accurate?
  • What is the impact of police utilising cyborg’s?
  • With the rise of police technology, would there be an equal rise of criminal technology to fight against?

 

Bibliography

 

AI and Police (Project Proposal-Ryan Catbagan)

After looking at the possible topics in the subject blog which I can research, I knew immediately that I wanted to research a topic to do with artificial intelligence or robots as I’ve always had an interest in the idea of artificial intelligence. I thought of different topics within Artificial Intelligence to research such as how they could function to help or destroy society, or if the treatment of Artificial Intelligence should or should not be the same as with human rights and laws, or if Artificial intelligence could overpower human capabilities to the point where they are able to take over. Whilst these topics all interest me, I feel a very specific area of the presence of Artificial Intelligence I would find interesting in exploring is how they could be used for the police. Could integrating Artificial Intelligence and advanced technology to the highest extent with the police make the police force an invincible force? And would it be a step forward or step backward for society and the justice system?

 

https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2017/09/19/how-robots-iot-and-artificial-intelligence-are-transforming-the-police/#50783e445d61

 

We’ve seen in many crime films and television shows like CSI how investigators utilise “State of the art” technology to catch each episode’s murderer, sometimes through ways which just seem a bit too convenient, but then again it’s just a TV show. Audiences believing the existence of these types of technology is the result of the ‘CSI Effect’. Such examples of these myths are how a fingerprint scan will lead to the computer to just bring up the suspect’s drivers license, how DNA scans takes a few hours, and the idea that EVERYONE is in the DNA database. But despite the idea of these technological advancements being made, I want to look at more highly advanced technology which walks the line of “Beyond imagination” but realistic enough to be actual technology in a dystopic future, which would make the police an unstoppable force.

 

Some of the main ideas include:

  • Artificial intelligence integrated into current technology- AI systems built in police cars rather than computers, use of AI in interrogations where it is programmed to ‘break the suspect into confession’ or can analyse where they are telling the truth or not, AI which can locate whereabouts and more.
  • Technologies which can scan every inch of a entire crime scene and creates conclusions and assist to the solving of crimes
  • Advanced technology which can extract information from minds when interrogations come to a stand still. (Like in the episode White Christmas in Black Mirror)
  • Body cameras which have technology such as facial recognition, or can act in itself such as to pepper
  • Creation of police robots with the perfect skill set in every situation which works above and beyond human instinct.

 

A large aspect I want to research in this project is of artificial intelligence. I’m talking about the artificial intelligence you see in the movies, the ones where it is almost or more than human, and how this could put any police work and crime solving in a situation where it can never be wrong. I would look into the most popular films which include AI such as 2001: A Space Odyssey, Blade Runner, Her and more. I would analyse the pros and cons, and what tends to occur in these movies, and imagine situations wherein AI would act in police duty.

 

  • Could AI built into police cars drive the cars themselves without permission?
  • Could AI create its own agendas which goes against its programming to assist in crime.
  • Could AI gain sympathy or empathy in the field of work
  • Could the lack of sympathy or empathy of AI affect outcomes

 

On top of the integration of AI, I would also look into futuristic technology which can perfectly solve any crime. I would research many films which utilises any technology that seem too far to reach in today’s age, and analyse how they can be used to create “Perfect Police Work” along with AI.

 

A fun idea which I want to explore is if there was development of robots designed to be perfect police officers. There are many films and texts throughout the 20th and 21st Century which have robots, mostly all portrayed by human actors, and each having their own unique features and attributes. But a common motive you could observe these robots holding is either to protect or to kill. You would find this specifically in The Terminator 2. It goes without saying that, if there was robots created to fight crime, there would certainly be robots created to commit them. Same as if there was technology created to solve crimes, there would be technologies created to get away with crime. In Terminator 2, Arnold Schwarzanegger’s mission is to protect John Connor from a Terminator who has a mission to kill him. Therefore there is complications with this idea. The film RoboCop introduces the idea of robots serving to protect civilians and eliminate enemies.

 

The idea of police being robots would create controversial societal conflicts with these being the basic  questions to be posed

  • Could these perfect police robots always work as efficiently as a trained and experience human officer with human instinct?
  • Would society benefit from being protected robots?
  • Could the perfect cop stop the perfect criminal?

Those are only the most basic questions to consider.

Ultimately the proposal for this project is to analyse a future wherein Artificial Intelligence and Highly advanced technology would be integrated into police work to create a police force which is able to work perfectly. A 100% success rate on all police work. And with this, to see if society would benefit or not from this.