Category: BCM320

Korean Music






My name is Ryan Catbagan, I’m a 21 year old Filipino and I’ve been living in Australia since I was 2 years old. I’ve always felt that my exposure to different cultures has in many ways been both broad and narrow. I have friends of many cultures, and eat many foods of different cultures, and I do know a lot about historical facts of these cultures. But I learnt through being in the subject BCM 320 Future Cultures that really my personal exposure to different cultures is limited to what I listed above. Through watching the original Godzilla movie, to Akira, to State of Play, I slowly became aware of how much I don’t know. 

The central media form that I’ve engaged in throughout the years is music. So I feel it’d make sense to me that I immerse myself in the music of a different culture. One culture that I’ve always heard about in regards to music and how great it is, is Korea. So in this blog I will be looking into the music of Korea.

A Musical approach to Auto-ethnography

A musical approach to Auto-ethnography is about deconstructing the endless layers of musical elements in your consciousness. Your experience, the music you currently/used to listen to, your ideology and understanding of theory etc. That is the main components associated with the musical approach to Auto-ethnography. This is supported by this quote: 

“Likewise, musicians move back and forth between the different layers of their musical consciousness in the interpretation and creation of musical works. In this creative process they draw on a wide range of musical experiences, memories and reference points, so that distinctions between the personal and musical become entangled.”
-Brydie-Leigh Bartleet (Making Autoethnography Sing/Making Music Personal)
This quote sums up the idea that a music approach to Auto-ethnography is about deconstructing the endless layers of musical elements in your consciousness. Your experience, the music you currently/used to listen to, your ideology and understanding of theory etc. 

My exposure to different cultures is extremely limited, however my exposure to every genre of music is extremely wide. This is what makes my auto-ethnographic experience so immersing to me. Many other people who would dive into Korean Music would only be viewing these Korean songs for face value. Before even going into this I knew that the musical elements within these songs would be a large part of how I make sense of this. As it says in the article by Ellis;

“scholars began recognizing that different kinds of people possess different assumptions about the world—a multitude of ways of speaking, writing, valuing and believing—and that conventional ways of doing and thinking about research were narrow, limiting, and parochial.” 

What I possess that makes how I make sense of this content unique to me is based on my musical background, and the fact I myself am of an asian background, which leads me to draw comparisons

My Experience with Music

My personal taste in music throughout the years have ranged to the extremes of different genres. I can create a Study playlist with Hardstyle EDM music to Johnny Cash to Drake to Metallica to Parkway Drive to RIhanna to Whitney Houston to The Eagles and much more. I’ve been in rock bands, metal bands, performed jazz music at school, and now I’m singing in a solo RnB/Rap project. My exposure to music of any genres is extremely wide and that’s something I take pride in.

I’ve always been open minded in how I consume music and film, and that’s what has led me to be as creative musically as I am. I am so interested to hear and compare the music of Korea with what I’m already familiar with. 

Past Experience with Korean Music

Prior to diving in to Korean Music culture for this project, like a lot of people, my first exposure to Korean music was Gangnam Style by PSY in 2012.

I remember sitting in the library in school, playing video games, and my friend come up to me and saying “You need to watch this!”. It was on the day the video blew up and became no.1 trending video on YouTube. The song itself had very catchy melodies, and though was all in Korean, the chorus of “Oppa Gangnam Style” was instantly memorable. The electronic components also was very familiar and would be a typical sound on an EDM track in western music.

What instantly caught my interest however was the music video and the visuals. I’ll never forget first seeing the video and instantly laughing my head off. It was brilliant. It knew it would go viral. It was goofy to the point where it was impossible to not succeed. It really was amazing, and re-watching it now, it still holds up. And diving in to Korean Music, I do expect to see a bit of what Gangnam style brought us.

Coming into going into Korean Music, a friend of mine who is a big fan of Korean artists said, expect everything to be Over the Top.

Korean Pop

Initially, when one says ‘Korean music’, the first word to come to mind is K-Pop. This is a culture within Korean Music which is the most popular and you would find many of the western population would actually be fans of.

In an online forum “What are the characteristics of K-pop” and one user wrote:

“Idol groups usually have these characteristics:

  1. Minimum of 4 members.
  2. There are roles: leader, vocalist, rapper, dancer, and the prettiest.
  3. Rapper seems mandarory. Girls’ Generation used to not have any rap, but it all changed since 2014.
  4. The members usually undergone some training, such as singing, dancing, and acting. Those who dance well but can’t sing will be rapper. Those who can’t dance and sing but too pretty will be an actress.
  5. Nowadays, cosmetic surgery is a must. Kpop companies take no risk anymore. They’d rather release a group containing 10 member with similar face than making an easy to identify group.
  6. Live singing used to be possible. But now it seems they prefer to present a great choreography with lipsyncing. 
  7. Cheesy lyrics. 
  8. Idol group usually tries very hard to get some fanatics. A lot of them force themselves to act cute or pretend to be gay towards other member because that’s what the market wants.
  9. The older the group gets, the sexier their concept become. A great example for this is Girl’s Day.
  10. The fanwars. I’m not sure if this is exclusive to kpop, but there are a lot of online fights between fandom. From what i can see, the first was between g.o.d and HOT fandoms, this time between EXO and BTS fandoms.”

In keeping this in mind I looked at a range of K-pop groups such as BTS, Exo, Big Bang, Girls’ Generation, SEVENTEEN, Blackpink (Live reaction video at the top) and Super junior just to name a few.

Every point that was listed above was relevant in almost EVERY SINGLE group I looked at. (Except maybe no.5 and no.9) It was absolutely fascinating watching all these videos and actually seeing these listed features. This made me look back at the boy bands and groups throughout the years that I’ve listened to. Backstreet Boys, Nsync, Boyz II Men and All-4-One. Though Backstreet Boys and Nsync are a different genre to Boyz II men and All-4-One, they all follow characteristics of typical bands of their genre, though more western influenced. The synchronised dancing, the fashion, the lyrics.

My exposure to those bands and groups when I was younger definitely impacted me to how I made sense of these K-Pop groups as while I was watching the videos, particularly those of BTS and Exo, I was just reminded by those bands. Even though the lyrics was in Korean, based on what I was seeing in the cheesy lovey dovey music videos, I always knew the songs were about being in love.

Music Videos and their Features

One thing Korean music videos are known for are their overproduced and very bright videos which feature a large array of colours that standout.  As I watched videos of Korean bands in the genre of Pop/Hip Hop/RnB. I definitely saw this in every one. And Over The Top definitely applies here. Here are some examples:

Other characteristics I picked up on are a use of close up shots, and zoom outs as the band begin to dance in sync. The faces of each singer are usually completely over the top covered in make up (Well I assume; just watch the vids). Being a big “film guy” for years, that led me to observing these features.

Compared to Western music videos, Korean production just seems more clean in comparison and more genuine, though more over the top. In many videos I see today, there are multiple things I can pick up on such as quick cheap cuts, cheap effects, poor lighting (Not applicable to all western artists), however it seems all Korean artists have excellent production, and leads to the charm

Korean Rap/Hip Hop

One genre of music I was extremely excited to jump into was Rap/Hip Hop. I was interested to hear how the Korean language would work with the flows you would hear in modern rap. As I speak a second language (tagalog), I’ve heard how rhymes and words that go together in tagalog work in different ways when writing. I was very interested to hear how it would sound in a rap genre.

Rap music in Korea has been around since the 90’s with artists such as Seo Taiji and Boys’ who arguably paved the way in Korean Hip Hop. The genre through the years has slowly been growing and growing with more artists coming along the way including HU57LA, RYNO, JON and more.

Features of Korean Rap

Over the top Style.

As I was watching a range of Korean Rappers, the most prolific aspect was their fashion, and their aesthetics. I believe the fashion and aesthetics of these videos are internally influenced. By that I mean, they do not look at Western artists and copy their style. Watching these music videos I believe that the Korean fashion industry and cultural trends are the main influence.

The theme over the top is one that perfectly encapsulates the aesthetic of Korean rap, but most prominent in rap, and that’s part of the charm. That’s why there is an overseas following growing every year that’s bigger and bigger.

Though Western influence is highly prominent in rap styles as I always found similarities and comparisons to American rappers, Korean rappers integrated their culture into these styles such as fashion, dance moves, brands and more to make it their own.

Live Reaction Vids

The first video I checked out was called Wondaland

Here is my live reaction:

Important points:

  • Implements english language throughout and uses American pronunciation
  • Very strong beat
  • A range of different styled vocals by the different rappers which are influenced by western rappers. One specific part a homage to Eminem.

The next rap artist I looked at was Bobby:

Important Points:

  • Massive over the top production-typical in Korean music
  • Strong and memorable melodic instrumental for the hook
  • Energetic performer

Rap and Language

An important aspect I observed is the relationship between language and rhyme. As I know how to speak a different language (Tagalog) I can tell you that for making words rhyme but also for the sentence to make sense, sometimes the rhyming word would have to be placed to the start of a sentence rather than the end. As I deconstructed these videos as best as I could, and with the help of my Korean mate for phrases, I found that the relationship between the language and rhyme patterns do a points limit structural patterns. This means the use of repetition of phrases and words to make the lyrics both make sense yet flow as well.

Korean Metal 

Rock and Metal music has been a love of mine since I first started listening to ACDC, up to when I discovered Metallica, and since then I’ve gotten into so many genres and sub genres of heavy music. I listened to Deathcore, Post Hardcore, Speed Metal and Thrash. I love it all. So this made me very interested to see what Korean music has to offer in the genre of metal.

So I looked into the Korean heavy metal band Crash who are described as pure adultered Thrash metal. Check out my reaction in the video below.

Important points I bring up in this video is that:

  • Sound is a mix of 90’s Thrash metal and 2000’s Metalcore. Follows generic Metalcore elements with Thrash metal parts
  • Comparisons can be drawn to Western bands such as Trivium,
  • Trend of Screamed vocals in verse and Cleanly sung choruses

The most important point I brought up is that this band has a more “truer” metalcore sound than most Western metalcore bands as crash does not stray to mainstream elements that most Western Metalcore bands fall for.

The next Metal band I live reacted to was Diablo which is below

Important points:

  • Screaming style of vocalist reminiscent of Randy Blythe by Lamb of God and clean singing style sounds like Howard Jones by Killswitch Engage.
  • Very generic riffs used
  • The clean sung vocals weren’t overproduced; a more genuine and raw sound which bands of the 2000’s used. Nowadays in Western Metal the vocals are overproduced to the point where the bands fail to capture authenticity

After listening to these two bands as well as more I’ve come to the conclusion that the genre of Metal remains a sound that is very hard to culturally make unique. However it speaks volumes that these bands follow the sound they aim for in a very “true” and genuine sense unlike many Western metal bands who succumb to the pressures of the modern downfall of metal. Essentially what I made sense of the Korean Metal genre is that when they aim for a sound or subgenre (e.g Metalcore, Thrash Metal, Post Hardcore), the music is created in a fashion where is stays true to the elements of that sub-genre as opposed to many western metal bands who identify themselves as a certain styled band, but utilises mainstream or ‘what’s trendy’ components which stains the feel of their music.

In Retrospect

Immersing myself into Korean music, I experienced several epiphanies that impacted how I made sense of the music. I was brought back to my high school music class all throughout as If I didn’t learn the theory, I wouldn’t have heard many things that stood out to me in the reaction videos. Watching the music videos themselves, as someone who’s been into film their whole life, I picked up apart technical elements which led me to the conclusion that their over the top style of production is what leads to the charm and style of Korean music. Such elements are the camera shots, the bright colours, the fashion and more.

I personally loved every single artists I checked out because while western influence was present, though for different genres there’s different levels of influence, they implement their own cultural influence which leads to the charm and uniqueness of these Korean artists.



Beyond Hallyu. (2018). What Are K-Pop Fans Like?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Oct. 2018].

Bruner, R. (2018). [online] Time. Available at: [Accessed 25 Oct. 2018].

Ellis, C., Adams, T. and Bochner, A. (2018). Autoethnography: An Overview. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Oct. 2018].

Lee, M. (2018). 2015 Was Korean Rap’s Breakthrough Year. [online] Noisey. Available at: [Accessed 25 Oct. 2018].


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BCM320 Blog Post 4

So in the last post for BCM320 I detailed my experience in the subject Digital Asia from an auto-ethnographic approach. To summarise that post I detailed my upbringings as a Filipino Australian and the the cultures and texts I was exposed to as a kid. I believed I was well diversified due to the range of cultures of the people I was friends with, and of my own.

I realised by the time I wrote the last blog post that I had only touched the surface of intercultural experiences. This subject has really opened my eyes and my mind to different cultures.

Personally to me, what draws me to immersing in these cultures is the sense of familiarity and unfamiliarity. During the semester, with every film/video we viewed, first I cling to the elements which are familiar, and this is what produces “epiphanies” (remembered moments perceived to have significantly impacted the trajectory of a person’s life (BOCHNER & ELLIS, 1992; COUSER, 1997; DENZIN, 1989). This is how we process what we are seeing. How we understand what we see in our minds using our own personal experiences.

Then I get drawn to what’s unfamiliar. Or similar way but a tad different… The familiarity within the unfamiliar. The things my mind perceives as familiar within things I find strange, odd, weird, unnatural etc etc. This also triggers epiphanies but in a different way. The mind trying to make sense of something that doesn’t make sense always creates a unique understanding of what is seen. One example of finding familiarity within the unfamiliar was in State of Play.

It followed the lives of professional gamers in Japan. I find video games familiar and I find the competitive mindset commonly found in sport familiar. I used to play video games all the time as a kid, and I’ve watched a range of different sports in my life, now mostly MMA and Boxing. When I watch MMA and Boxing fights and the documentaries behind them I see their competitive mindset. The will to put their lives on the line to win. It’s what I feel is a unique mindset. I myself have been boxing on and off for the past year, haven’t competed yet, though through fighting sparring partners during training, I am aware of the mindset fighters must have.

Now through watching State of Play, I saw this same mindset of risking everything just to win, but instead with Japanese pro gamers. I am aware of the existence of pro gaming, but not to the extent of the one seen in State of Play. I usually envision kids in a quiet room full of heaps of screens when I think of a live pro gaming event. But in State of Play it was like a concert, and the gamers were rockstars. There were massive crowds screaming, and a huge production. The gamers that the film follows themselves were what I found the most strange as they took it so seriously. They sacrificed many things just to excel in this. It’s as if their lives depended on it. Compare these two videos.



Both COMPLETELY different professions. But you can see the same mindset in both the gamers and this professional fighter.

This has led me to gain interest in the Behaviour and Attitudes aspect of Auto Ethnographic studies. In the Ellis Et Al reading this kind of study reflects the form of  reflexive auto ethnography.

Digital Artefact

Now for the digital artefact for this subject, me and 2 other students will be delving into the K-Pop Fandom wars. We were planning on doing a reaction video to these fans going crazy for their favourite artists. Because we want this to be authentic in reaction, I will not look into anything related to it until after we react to the video

BCM320 Blog Post 3

So this week’s blog is to detail my own auto-ethnographic experience with this subject of Digital Asia and the field I’m looking in. My group have decided to delve into the culture of K-Pop

So being a Filipino Australian who has friends of many different cultures, I already felt like I have been exposed to a variety of traditions and texts as I’ve either been at a friends home and seen on the television a movie made in their respective culture, or other ways such as seeing what they share on social media and all that. I however did not really know much about Korean Pop other than Gangnam Style.

Before we looked into any sort of information regarding Korean Pop, we decided to just put a camera on us, and watch videos, and react. As little background information as possible. This would become our live reaction DA. We simply searched up the top 2 K-Pop bands and we found BTS and EXO who we all have heard of before but never looked into them. They both happened to be rival artists, and this is what led us to looking into the fandom in K-Pop as well. We watched 2 videos by BTS and EXO and reacted to them which were these:


Reaction Video


My auto-ethnographic experience with this video was that I instantly began to compare them to familiar artists in Western Media such as One Direction, Backstreet Boys, Nsync and more. I also began to analyse the musical features as I myself am a musician. I noticed typical pop melodies that are present in Western songs, as well as the dance choreography which is familiar yet unique. Interpreting these videos were actually very easy for me, except the foreign language. Musically, I heard everything I normally would hear in Western songs, I saw choreographed dance, and filming styles that I’m very much aware of. Exo’s music video was styled as a single shot one take video, same as the film Birdman. BTS’ music included rapping which reminded me of modern rappers that I listen to, although mixed in with pop music.

On top of these two videos, we also looked into videos of fans interacting with the bands and we learned that fans of K-Pop are crazy, and this is where I had my epiphany, looking into the fans. They are similar to the nature of soccer fans who fight each other and argue in all forms of social media about who is better. Seeing all these fan interactions and footage really baffled me as I couldn’t believe the extent of what these fans would do for their artists. One fan bought a singer an Xbox and gave it to him at a meet and greet. Others gave them jewellry, and a lot of them cried meeting their favourite artists.


BCM320 Blog Post 2

This week the screening we watched was the film Akira (1988) which is a Japanese animated post apocalyptic Sci-Fi film. The film has received critical acclaim over the years and is widely considered to be one of the greatest animated and Sci-Fi films ever made.

Prior to watching this, I haven’t been exposed to much anime, only ‘Ghost in The Shell’ that we watched in BCM 241. However as a kid I did watch Pokemon a lot and I also was into cartoons. So Akira is the second anime film I would be exposed to. Ghost in the Shell was a very fascinating and enjoying watch for me.

Viewing the movie I was surprised on how much I immediately engaged with it. I thought it would be somewhat foreign to me, but the graphics themselves as well as the english overdubs, I didn’t really need to adjust to the movie as much as I did with watching Godzilla. I must admit the english overdubs did help me a lot and made it more familiar to me.

The story of it is also not as foreign as I expected, the plot almost seems like that of a Western movie, so it’s very accessible. I love the style of the animations, and honestly can say if I didn’t now the film was made in 1988, I would’ve thought it was recent. There’s also nothing which grounds the film in 1988, 30 years ago, because the plot and themes, are still relevant and used in films today. If there’s one thing about Akira that is certain, is that it is Timeless. I also really loved the soundtrack of the movie, it is absolutely beautiful.

All in all, I absolutely loved the movie. I was very surprised how well I engaged with the movie, and didn’t need to step out of my comfort zone to immerse in it.

Another part of this week was reading an article Ellis At Al (2011) which is an in depth run down of what exactly Auto-ethnography is. What is delved into is the history, the process, and the results, as well as the criticism of it.

The very first sentence sums it up: “Autoethnography is an approach to research and writing that seeks to describe and systematically analyze (graphy) personal experience (auto) in order to understand cultural experience (ethno)”.

It is essentially the coming together of autobiography and ethnography. This is exactly what we did in our first blog post responding to Godzilla, the context of it, and how we perceive it based on our own experiences. So through that, I’ve already done Auto-ethnographic work.

The most interesting part of the article was the “Potentials, Issues and Criticisms” which detail some of the forms and approaches of auto-ethnography such as Indigenous/Native, reflexive, narrative, layered accounts, interviews and more, which was good. The different approaches really helps you figure out how to immerse in auto-ethnographic research and which methods are best for which situations.

BCM320: Blog Post 1

The first seminar of BCM320: Digital Asia brought a screening and live tweeting of the film Godzilla (Not the 2014 film and NOT the 1998 disaster). We viewed the 1954 Japanese film which was black and white.

I was very aware of just how dated the film is, and the capabilities of effects from this time period, which was no CGI, meaning it was all practical. But being born in the 90’s, and being exposed to heavily CGI and effects driven films my whole life, watching Godzilla 1954 was certainly an experience. When I moved to Australia when I was a kid, all I could speak was Filipino and didn’t know a word of English. A really cool method my parents did to somewhat teach me to understand english is to get me to watch movies. By the time I was 6 years old I probably had watched 3 times more movies than the average 6 year old. I loved action movies and sci fi. I remember watching Star Wars and not understanding a single word, but the lightsaber fights were awesome, and I used to quote what they say, even not knowing what they meant. In time, with school and watching movies, I could speak english great.

In retrospect, all the movies I was watching were very modern and the oldest movie I used to watch was the first Star Wars film, which uses effects that still hold up today. While in recent years I’ve watched a few old black and white movies, Psycho being one of my favourites, I haven’t yet watched one that would have to use large scale effects. So here today, I will view Godzilla 1954.

As I watched the film, I had tried to turn back time, and imagine I was a person in 1954 watching a big monster destroying cities on a screen. I eliminated any thought of modern CGI, movie effects and modern technology. To an extent this way of viewing it did make me feel a sense of awe on how this was made. But in honesty, trying to eliminate all I know about modern films while watching this was very unrealistic, so I just viewed it as it is, without taking my mind to a different time period.

Viewing this film in 2018, I actually really enjoyed this screening experience. The black and white maintained this grim atmosphere, and seeing cities and all that’s familiar being destroyed in this black and white backdrop, it just further makes you feel the weight of the disastrous events. Godzilla himself was very cool, the movement though seemed very funny at times and you can tell it was a human in a Godzilla suits a lot, but the monster did look really cool. Sound effects and the script were campy but I really loved that, made it very enjoyable.

As a kid I used to think Godzilla 1998 was a great movie, I used to watch it all the time. Watching it today I realised just how bad it was, but back then it seemed great. Watching Godzilla 1954, I can appreciate how great it was back in that era though it’s extremely dated today, and that’s why I would watch the 1954 movie any day over the 1998 one.

Live tweeting this movie was a pleasure, though hard as multi-tasking with subtitles is pretty difficult, but all in all I loved watching this movie. Good to take a step back in time.