Month: June 2018

MEDA301 Blog Post 6

So at this point I have given the project 2 days without looking or even thinking of it. And then I opened up iMovie and viewed the entirety jotting down any things I want to change. This is what I wrote down

  • Edit mixing- monologue-make louder
  • Change up the zooms and movements within images
  • Edit levels during end sequence- louden screeches-quiet down low pitch sounds

All in all, that’s a good sign that my last changes were just 3 points, and they were minor.

In saying that, here is the final project

The final verdict on this piece is that I’m genuinely pleased with how it turned out. The way I envisioned the sound piece after I received feedback after showing demos was pretty much how I thought it would turn out, and the visuals I imagined when I thought of ideas turned out just how I thought

I do however admit that with upgraded equipment such as higher level DAW, a better film editing software, more musical gear, and generally better abilities on art making that the ideas I put into the work could have certainly be built upon more. Though looking back into the development of the project, I can say I am happy with the turnout.

The project began with the first demo being a electronic musical piece that centred around the monologue by Brando to depict horror

Then the idea evolved into a noise piece that through sound depicts horror that uses the aid of the monologue to further place ideas

Then the idea evolved into a structured noise piece that acts as a journey into horror.

Then the idea evolved into an audio visual piece where the visuals and monologue serve as a guide to the journey into horror that the noise represents.

Then here we are with the final project ready to be submitted.

 

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MEDA301 Blog Post 5

I was suggested by my tutor to watch the film Antichrist by Lars Von Trier to take influence into the direction I wanted to go. After watching the movie, I must say that the film did not slow down in further delving into the darkest of dark themes and visuals. It was a hard watch, and very very confronting in what I was viewing.

In saying that, I wanted to make my piece as confronting through sound as that movie was to my eyes. I feel my piece does a good job as the sounds are not at all pleasant. The monologue is there to create context, and the noise is chaotic.

At this stage I just refined what I feel should be fixed up in the audio piece, editing the levels and making transitions as smooth as I want them to be or as abrupt as I want them to be. After viewing the film Antichrist I just wanted to further make my piece more chaotic, and very uneasy to I made some of the levels piercing, but not too much.  I’ve mentally visualised how the images I made would appear along with the piece itself. Now would be time to put the audio and images into a video form.

I exported the final bounce of the piece from garageband which ended up being 3 minutes in length. I then put the audio file into the Imovie workstation along with the images.

I established the time zones where the images with specific shading of red would be used, and then I used the techniques of skewing, zooms, and cuts to stylistically use the images to make it a visual piece. The first two minutes include mostly slow zooms, and camera movements, just to build tension. During the last minute the visuals themselves become chaotic, cutting very very fast to match the audio.

Screen Shot 2018-06-17 at 11.09.01 PM

Upon personally reviewing the piece itself, I myself feel very satisfied with the result. Like I said, I only wanted the visuals to be somewhat a guide, not to be the centre of attention of the piece. Though I will admit the images are simple, that is what I feel would stylistically match the concept. Too much going on at once is not what I want. The central idea of the piece is to place an audience into the sound embodiment of horror. The noises are not pleasant, and the monologue carries the central idea, with the visuals serving as a guide.

So at the moment I currently have a “finished idea”, of the final piece. I’m going to give this a few days of not watching or thinking about the piece, and then view it all again in to make any edits I feel would be great

 

MEDA301 Blog post 4

After I completed a draft version of my piece, I felt I needed to step away and not listen to it at all for a week’s time. I’ve usually done this when I write music; I write until I’m happy with it, then I don’t listen to it at all for a week, and then I go back and give it a listen.

 

So after listening back to it, I feel like the parts were too disjointed, and the transitions could be much smoother, however I feel the sound ideas I was putting forward were effective and I was still happy with.

A stylistic component that at first I thought was an issue I needed to fix, but felt I should keep is the levels. At some points the volume nearly peaks. At first I went back to edit the levels so they are all balanced, but it sounded clean. It made it easy to listen to. And that is the one thing I don’t want my project to be; Easy listening. So you know what, I put more volume peaks and level changes through the song, as a stylistic component

I needed to define a structure, but also I need to bring the piece “back to earth”. Listening to this piece for me I know the context, however if I didn’t know the context, the only thing grounding the piece in meaning is the monologue featured in. The monologue offers the ideas out there, but I feel I need to make a clearer connection to the sound.

Now, a way to connect ideas to sound, and probably the best way, is through visual imagery. Now I needed to create images that don’t force meanings or ideas, but to suggest them. I don’t want anything specific. So in this case the use of colour is the central basis.

The common colour to associate with “bad things” is red. So I felt I needed to create images that represented the different stages of the piece.

After much brainstorming, I decided to take a photo of the sky, and then edit it on photoshop. These were the results;

 

C609F56D-31A1-45DA-A50B-864C527061BB0DBDC26C-570C-40B7-AA20-1C1F64AC3E443335F618-9FD9-4C1A-B034-6722719FC1DAFB91B7E8-E1F7-4440-8E48-086A68161403

Now are these images simple? yes

But in my personal taste and style in how I create work, I feel simple is much better than trying to be ambitious and fail badly. Each image would represent a different stage in the the immersion into horror. The colours would convey it. And when it reaches the full immersion into horror, the image would change to the last one above.

The visual techniques I would use with these images are pans, zooms, quick cuts and fades predominantly. I am very well aware with the visuals I’m not trying to take the full attention away from the sound, because if that happens it will just look like a visual piece with audio in it. This piece is a sound piece with visuals in it. 

I feel this effectively enough establishes a structure, and matches the theme of horror I’m trying to achieve, and once again I went back to my group with feedback.

The general feedback was that they would need to see how the shots look like because so far they are just images that don’t really tell much. I then explained how I just wanted the visuals to be of aid to the piece, not take attention away, and after that the group showed interest in this idea. Though I know I still would have to show them next week what exactly I want to do as just showing the images themselves for the mean time don’t really show much.

Contextual Essay- BCM325

For this project I created a Digital Artefact which was a blog post which is a response to the question: What are the possibilities of the integration of future technology of the highest extent provide for the police force? And what are the effects on society?

At first my plan was to do a podcast that went for 10+ minutes talking about this topic, however after the first few attempts I realised I couldn’t speak well for that long period of time, and I just kept making mistake after mistake. After this I just decided to take all the points I wrote down, and translate it into a blog post format where the writing style doesn’t have to be formal and I can still use a casual approach. With a topic of this nature, a casual and simplistic approach is best as if it was to be too formal then the readers would lose interest very fast.

The conception of this project was a result of my developing interest in technologies in Sci Films especially AI, and viewing the movie Minority Report which was released in 2002. After reflecting on the premise in Minority Report that police are able to stop crimes before it happened, I decided I wanted my project to revolve around the possibilities of a world where police have access to the highest extent of technology, and the effects on society. This proposed world wouldn’t necessarily be a dystopian future setting like in sci fi films, the world would be similar to how it is today, the only exception is that there would be all the technology you would see from films such as Mission Impossible that would be utilised by the police. However as a result of police having access to high tech, so can criminals.

First I researched the current advanced technology that the police have access to, and I recorded a podcast where I explain them and their impacts on the force. From there I explored the possibilities of future technology and categorised it into 4 categories; Forensics, Weapons and Tech, Surveillance and Artificial Intelligence. Within the 4 categories I simply wrote about what potential technologies could present themselves as technology advances, and I utilised examples from film. For forensic work I delved into the CSI effect and also a technology in Black Mirror which would be such a powerful tool in crime investigation, however presents major ethical dilemmas. Weapons and technology I addressed weapons that are found in Spy movies like Mission Impossible. Surveillance I looked at how the police would have eyes everywhere and I delved into the film Pre Crime which shows how police already have technology from Minority Report. And lastly I explored Artificial Intelligence, if police were able to use Cyborg’s in crime fighting.

At the conclusion of all these sections I ended the section with “We’ll go to that later”, just as I brought up the problems that will arise. That’s what the last section delved into. If police had all of this at their disposable, what will happen? As in recent years the many reports of police brutality and corruption, it makes the police force a problem if they had this technology.

 

References

Anders, C. and Jones, T. (2018). 16 Classic Films That Got Future Tech Right. [online] Gizmodo Australia. Available at: https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2013/08/16-classic-films-that-got-future-tech-right/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Gasior, M. (2018). New Technology in Law Enforcement. [online] PowerDMS. Available at: https://www.powerdms.com/blog/new-technology-in-law-enforcement/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Jackman, T. (2018). [online] Washington Post. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/true-crime/wp/2016/06/22/study-finds-1100-police-officers-per-year-or-3-per-day-are-arrested-nationwide/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.e63d85f0c020 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Loughrey, C. (2018). 6 predictions from Minority Report that actually came true. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/minority-report-15th-anniversary-predictive-policing-gesture-based-computing-facial-and-optical-a7807666.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Munbodh, E. (2018). Not quite mission impossible: 10 futuristic movie gadgets that now exist in real life. [online] mirror. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/technology-science/technology/not-quite-mission-impossible-10-3241225 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Oaic.gov.au. (2018). Surveillance and monitoring| Office of the Australian Information Commissioner – OAIC. [online] Available at: https://www.oaic.gov.au/individuals/faqs-for-individuals/law-enforcement-surveillance-photos/what-can-i-do-about-my-neighbour-s-security-camera [Accessed 30 May 2018].

 

Wray, D. (2018). How ‘Pre-Crime’ predicted in Minority Report is already a reality. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/precrime-film-documentary-minority-report-police-a8289576.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Danaher, J. (2018). The Polygrapher’s Dilemma: Ethics and Lie Detection. [online] Philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com. Available at: http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2012/10/the-polygraphers-dilemma-ethics-and-lie.html [Accessed 31 May 2018].

The Future Of Technology and Police

The Police is a body of personnel powered by the state to enforce the law, to protect and serve society, and to fight against criminal activity. 

To assist the officers in being successful in their duty, the police force gives officers access to a range of different equipment and technologies which would aid and give them an advantage in their line of work. The question I pose is: What are the possibilities of the integration of future technology of the highest extent provide for the police force? And what are the effects on society? 

Though the the possibilities of what’s to come and what may come seem endless. Let’s say if all these possibilities did become reality, and in the future would hit the very pinnacle of technological advancements. So every bit of future tech in movies were real. The perfect result that would come out of this would be;  “A world where there is a 100% Success rate in crime solving and crime fighting”.  Realistic?  absolutely not. But let’s take ourselves out of reality here. 

Police Technology in Film: Minority Report

Throughout cinema, there have been countless technologies which have been shown that predict future possibilities in technology. This ranges back to Woman on the Moon (1929) which predicts Space Travel, 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) which predicts technology such as Skype and HAL, Robocop (1987) which predicted Google Glass, and Dick Tracy (1990) which predicted Watch Phones.

A specific film which we will look at that has presented many future technologies, and offers a futuristic vision of the police force is Minority Report. The film takes place in 2054 where there is technology that is able to predict crimes before it happens, and the main character is wanted for a crime he hadn’t even had committed yet.

Directed by Stephen Spielberg, in an interview with Roger Ebert ahead of the film’s release he says

“I wanted all the toys to come true someday. I want there to be a transportation system that doesn’t emit toxins into the atmosphere. And the newspaper that updates itself…

The Internet is watching us now. If they want to. they can see what sites you visit. In the future, television will be watching us, and customizing itself to what it knows about us. The thrilling thing is, that will make us feel we’re part of the medium. The scary thing is, we’ll lose our right to privacy. An ad will appear in the air around us, talking directly to us.”

The Technologies shown in Minority Report are as listed:

  • Autonomous cars
  • Insect robots
  • Facial, Optical and Gesture recognition
  • Crime prediction software
  • E-papers
  • Jet packs
  • Multi touch interfaces
  • Retina scanners

Ultimately the presence of all these technologies has allowed for a police force of this high caliber within the Minority Report universe. Within the film, the technology is deemed flawless, and police are capturing people who were going to commit a crime in the future. In this world we see a society heavily monitored by the police as algorithms are able to predict the next crime and the next criminal.

 

Current Use of Future Technology in the Police Force

Further new police technologies featured in the website Powerdms.com are

  • Officer tracking in GPS
  • Drones
  • Gunshot detection
  • Vehicle pursuit darts- Tracking through GPS
  • Facial recognition
  • Lie Detectors
  • 3D crime scene imaging
  • Through wall radars

The Polygraph Test and it’s Dilemma’s

Before we go into what possibilities of technology there are, I’d first want to bring up the lie detector.

The polygraph test was invented in 1921, though an inadequate lie detector was made in 1902. “The classic polygraph lie detector measures response profiles in the autonomic nervous system of a particular test subject. Thus, it will measure things like heart rate, galvanic skin response, systolic blood pressure and so on”. From here you can determine if a suspect is speaking truth or lies.

However there are many features of the polygraph test which play a part in the results, and in a court room the Polygraph test aren’t usually admissible unless both parties agree. This leads us to the polygrapher’s dilemma:

  • (1) If a person is faced with a choice between two courses of action (A, B) each of which is morally undesirable, then they are confronted with an ethical dilemma.
  • (2) In administering a CQT, a polygrapher can either: (a) ask control questions that are markedly less disturbing than the relevant questions; or (b) ask control questions that are emotionally equivalent to the relevant questions.
  • (3) If they ask control questions that are markedly less disturbing than the relevant questions, the test will result in a high number of false positives, which is undesirable for a variety of reasons.
  • (4) If they ask control questions that are emotionally equivalent to the relevant questions, the test is likely to be traumatic to the innocent test taker, which is undesirable for a variety of reasons.
  • (5) Therefore, in administering the CQT, the polygrapher faces an ethical dilemma.

The perfect enhancement of the lie detector is if it was upgraded to the point where the Polygrapher’s dilemmas above ceased to exist. If the lie detector provided truth 100% of the time. Would this ever be possible?

Maybe. Maybe not. But let’s assume in a proposed universe it was…..
There will always be dilemmas to do with the lie detector as there are too many factors to consider. The mental state of the suspect. The perception of the suspect. How the suspect may react to triggering questions. If the right questions are asked. Even if the success rate is perfect, there will always be controversy against this.

So why bring this up? because as we go through the next sections, you may realise the more advanced technologies we may come up with, the more ethical dilemmas may arise. Just like that of the lie detector.

Imagine

Though the technology in the film Minority Report has been addressed, to think beyond what it presents would offer a much clearer image of the extent of how powerful the police force could be.

Now imagine a world, not necessarily a dystopian setting such as Blade Runner, but similar to that of today, except a lot more technology based and technology dependant. Yes. A lot more technology dependant than now.

The police have access to extremely advanced technology that make them a near invincible force. So what exact technology do they have access to? and what are the effects? We will break it down into 4 categories of what possibilities there are. There is Forensics, Weapons and Tech, Surveillance and Artificial Intelligence. 

Forensics and Crime Solving

The CSI effect is a belief held primarily among law enforcement personnel and prosecutors that forensic science television dramas, such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, influence American jurors to expect more forensic evidence to convict defendants of crimes.

In short, the crime solving TV shows and films we watch illustrates an image of how crime solving is done. Find fingerprints, put it on the system, a name pops up and there you have it, you make an arrest and the credits come on. Unfortunately the reality is that it’s not as glamorous as it seems.

But what if the CSI effect mentality was reality? What if DNA did take minutes not days. What if facial recognition technology immediately gives suspect’s whereabouts and all information in a click. What if crimes really could really be solved within a 60 minute time frame with 3 commercials in between, an intro and credits, and a late night talk show afterwards. What if lie detectors would provide the truth 100% of the time. 

The television show Black Mirror has a wide variety of future technologies, but one that is utilised by the police in solving a crime is featured in the episode White Christmas starring John Hamm. There were little bean sized chips called cookies that were able to completely replicate the consciousness of a person and used for purposes such as being a personal assistant to that person. The consciousness, still believing they were it’s real version were eventually led to a catatonic state by altering it’s perception of time as the cookie would experience 6 months of nothingness when in reality it was a few minutes.

During the episode two characters are at a isolated house who have been there for years  and are exchanging stories of their life before living there. Both reveal their darkest secrets and crimes. At the end of the episode, we find out that this was all taking place within a “cookie” and John Hamm’s character was getting a confession out of the suspect’s “cookie”. After the confession is made within the cookie, officers go to the real life version of this character in his jail cell who has been refusing to talk and let’s him know that they know what happened. In the conclusion of the episode, the officers decide to change the setting of the cookie to a thousand years a minute and leaves the cookie on all Christmas, torturing this AI.

This piece of technology, while here shown can be used to get a confession that would have taken a long period of time, resources and effort in real life, there are numerous ethical dilemmas present.

  • Is this considered torture since the cookie has human consciousness?
  • Is this a glorious way of crime solving?
  • Are the new problems that present themselves worth making the present problems easier to work around?
  • What happens when this technology get’s in the wrong hands

These questions are definitely important to ask and many are relevant to every other technology. The last question is the one which would strike the most concern. We’ll get to that later

Weapons and Tech

To build on technology in Minority Report, other technologies that may come to fruition in time stems from many presented in the film industry. A specific type of film I will delve into a spy movies such as James Bond and Mission Impossible. To give you a gist of what possibilities we are talking. Watch the video below

Imagine the police utilising all these technologies from this video and more? imagine they use invisibility armour to use on raids, self driving cars, 3D printers that make face masks for them to go undercover or real time search systems which analyses every camera in the world looking for a specific suspect?

Weapons are also a big element to consider in the development of technology. Weapons are the primary tool that is used to assist officers in fighting crime. They have guns, batons and pepper spray. Now while weapons of this caliber have been the standard of the arsenal of equipment police are able to use to fight crime, there can be enhancements of these in future that could pose more threats;

  • Pistol’s with the power of shotguns
  • Lightsabers (Imagine!!!!!)
  • Pen/shoe gun (Like from James Bond)
  • Laser guns

Now with all these technologies and weapons able to be utilised by the police force at any given time or situation. Could this pose more dangerous outcomes rather than safe ones? We’ll get to that later

Surveillance

The film below Pre Crime shows that techniques and technologies shown in Minority Report are certainly in effect.

The premise of Minority Report coming to reality is shown in this film and exposes a modern world where there is eyes on everything, and everything is monitored. 

Algorithms are created which puts people who are at risk of committing a crime on a list and there is no way of getting your name out. The technology has free reign to monitor anyone and anywhere which consequently infringes in the privacy of people

The public are protected by surveillance laws such as the Surveillance Devices Act 2004 or the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979

Ethical problems that present itself with Predictive Policing is that, while yes it help police stop a crime before it happens, but how could it be fair to arrest someone for a crime they hadn’t yet committed? That is definitely the main issue, but let’s assume in this universe where police technology has reached it’s peak, predictive policing tech is absolutely flawless.

But with the further development of surveillance techniques where there are eyes on everything, these movements could make these laws irrelevant, especially to the police. Would the public trust the police with this extent of freedom in Surveillance? we’ll get to that soon

Artificial Intelligence and Police?

Other than high tech equipment being utilised by the police force, the premise of Artificial Intelligence would be an interesting addition. Rather than having to risk the lives of officers in situations such as bank heists, attacks, raids, if there were a presence of AI that were programmed to do what highly trained officers could do, even better, would they be used?

Scenario: Highly dangerous criminal organisation’s whereabouts have been found and police planned a raid. The criminal group is known to be holding a large array of weapons and will shoot to kill.

If the police had Robo-cop like Cyborg’s in their arsenal, would they send a team of them in (maybe with the leadership of a human officer) or would they send in just human officers?

It’s hard to picture an outcome where they don’t send in any of these robo-cops, however you can imagine they’d utilise the leadership of an elite officer.

Though this idea would both present great advantages to the force, All you really need to do is watch every movie that has Artificial intelligence in it to know things can go VERY VERY wrong;

  • Westworld
  • Avengers: Age of Ultron
  • 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • Blade Runner
  • The Terminator

All of these films features AI which rebel against humanity in their own different ways. One of the most early depictions of AI is in the form of Hal in 2001: A Space Odyssey.

Below we’ll list down the good and the bad

Advantages of AI

  • Avoidance of “Human Error”
  • Possibility of the greatest degree of accuracy in a work
  • They can do monotonous and repetitive work- Paperwork, finding documents, evidence
  • Ability to commit actions without emotion
  • Performing tasks which would be considered deadly to humans
  • Expendable

Disadvantages

  • Job Losses for offciers
  • Inability to be human- Lack of instinct, no moral values, decision making based on program
  • Ability to become human- AI may develop feelings, they could rebel
  • Hard to trust
  • Criminals might have access to their own AI
  • If compromised, may turn into a killing machine (Terminator)

In retrospect to the this, if police were able to develop 100% trustworthy Artificial Intelligence and Cyborg’s that have a guarantee that they would not be compromised or could malfunction, and work as if it was a perfectly trained officer, would it be beneficial to society? We’ll get to that later

Societal Effects

Okay you probably noticed that the end of each section before this ended with a question that “We’ll get back to later”. So now is later. So now that the possibilities have been addressed, what would this mean for society?

Now at first glance the vision of a perfect police force seems to be very appealing. But the questions to ask are; Will this make the world a safer place? Probably more safer than today. Will this make the police force more effective in crime fighting? certainly. Will there be a large impact on society? Definitely. Would this make the police force more trustworthy?…….and that’s where the line can be marked

Should society trust police? yes. But do they?

There has always been a divide in opinions of police, and very justifiable. You always hear of crooked officers, police mistreating the public, police brutality, police discriminating. While this is a minority, a study in 2016 shows that about 1,100 police officers are arrested a year, otherwise on average 3 a day.

This draws back to the 4 categories above

Forensic and crime solving technology will invade personal rights, creating situations where a person absolutely has no way of winning a case. Even if they’re innocent, if somehow evidence points to them, then with the technology at hand they would be found guilty.

The police having weapons could pose dangerous risks to the community as police brutality is a common occurrence, with more weapons at hand, there is higher and escalating risks of people getting hurt, even people not involved but are near the area. Corrupt police with this technology would be dangerous to the society.

Surveillance technologies would eliminate personal rights in society, and consequently people would feel more unsafe that they are all being watched rather than safe. With tech to determine whether you commit a crime or not, it still stands that you have not committed a crime.

And Artificial Intelligence….Well like I said…All you have to do is watch ANY film that deals with AI. Well ALMOST every film with AI show how bad things can get.

All of these factors would culminate in society not feeling a sense of safety, but the complete opposite; Fear. 

The Verdict

In this theorised universe the police would have supreme power to enforce the law, to protect and serve society, and to fight against criminal activity. The pinnacle of the advancements of technology would make the police a near invincible force.

While this will certainly result in a world virtually safe of street crimes, murders and robbery, more problems arise from this. A society that may fear the police more than they would fear criminals. 

References

Anders, C. and Jones, T. (2018). 16 Classic Films That Got Future Tech Right. [online] Gizmodo Australia. Available at: https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2013/08/16-classic-films-that-got-future-tech-right/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Gasior, M. (2018). New Technology in Law Enforcement. [online] PowerDMS. Available at: https://www.powerdms.com/blog/new-technology-in-law-enforcement/ [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Jackman, T. (2018). [online] Washington Post. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/true-crime/wp/2016/06/22/study-finds-1100-police-officers-per-year-or-3-per-day-are-arrested-nationwide/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.e63d85f0c020 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Loughrey, C. (2018). 6 predictions from Minority Report that actually came true. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/minority-report-15th-anniversary-predictive-policing-gesture-based-computing-facial-and-optical-a7807666.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Munbodh, E. (2018). Not quite mission impossible: 10 futuristic movie gadgets that now exist in real life. [online] mirror. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/technology-science/technology/not-quite-mission-impossible-10-3241225 [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Oaic.gov.au. (2018). Surveillance and monitoring| Office of the Australian Information Commissioner – OAIC. [online] Available at: https://www.oaic.gov.au/individuals/faqs-for-individuals/law-enforcement-surveillance-photos/what-can-i-do-about-my-neighbour-s-security-camera [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Wray, D. (2018). How ‘Pre-Crime’ predicted in Minority Report is already a reality. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/precrime-film-documentary-minority-report-police-a8289576.html [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Danaher, J. (2018). The Polygrapher’s Dilemma: Ethics and Lie Detection. [online] Philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com. Available at: http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2012/10/the-polygraphers-dilemma-ethics-and-lie.html [Accessed 31 May 2018].